Annu. Ounce per ounce, most unflavored coconut water contains 5.45 calories, 1.3 grams of sugar, 61 milligrams of potassium, and 5.45 milligrams of sodium. A LOD of added sugars of 1.3% was achieved (45 samples) and the chemical shift and line-shape of the malic acid signal appeared to be diagnostic for exogenous sugar mixtures (46). Subsequent analysis of 24 coconut waters on the (presumably Austrian) retail market implied 38% contained undeclared exogenous C4 sugars. European law (37) (which should be consulted for general authenticity, purity and labelling requirements) on fruit juices and similar products also applies to coconut water. Sulfite addition and processing to 136°C were effective to prevent pinking and maintain the levels of the main organic compounds. Thus following a check for appearance (lack of appreciable turbidity), organoleptic acceptability and sterility, further investigation of samples should focus on conformity of labelling with regard to absence or otherwise of added sugar, the presence of any preservative and other additives, pesticides and heavy metals. The method was shown to be statistically equivalent to a reference method and was applied to coconut water samples taken in Brazil (n = 5) with results between 13.0 and 55.4 mg/L for free sulfite and 24.7 and 66.9 mg/L for total sulfur (IV) compounds (47). Coconut water is practically sterile in the coconut and is widely consumed as a drink, prized for its delicate, albeit labile, flavor when fresh. The volume of coconut water is within the range (100-600 mL) reported in the literature [4], being higher in green coconut water than in mature coconut water [1,6]. (5), the three most popular cultivars worldwide in 2011 were West African Tall, Malaysian Yellow Dwarf and “PB121” Hybrid. Sight of the local standards and AIJN reference guideline acceptability criteria for coconut water would be essential for any official analyst before issuing an adverse opinion against a sample of coconut water. Units: g/100 mL and g/100 g assumed to be equivalent. High power ultrasound has been shown to be synergistic with HPCD in reduction of microbiological organisms (31). (, Pereira E.P.R., Faria J.A.F., Pinto U.M. Search for other works by this author on: Laboratory of the Government Chemist (LGC), Queen’s Road, Food Forensics: Stable Isotopes as a Guide to Authenticity and origin. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. The European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) has been working on a reference guideline for coconut water. Indeed in recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the UK and global demand for coconut water (9) due to its reputed potential as a sports drink and a natural isotonic drink (10). Imaizumi et al. (1) reported that the variation in total sugars in water from mature coconuts, from various varieties and origin, was in the range of 1.8–4.4 g/100 mL. It contains easily digested carbohydrates in the form of sugar and electrolytes. (, Mahnot N.K., Kalita D., Mahanta C.L., Chaudhuri M.K. One group (the control) received bottled drinking water, the second group received coconut water, the third received mauby and the fourth group, a mixture of coconut water and mauby. To learn more, view our, The Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Coconut Water, The Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Water, Coconut water uses, composition and properties: a review, Therapeutic and Nutritional Values of Narikelodaka (Tender Coconut Water) - A Review. Assumed <6 months old; data adapted from (14) and (16). The coconut water exhibited carbon isotope ratios between –26.40 and –23.76%. Over the past two decades coconut water has been used extensively as a treatment for cholera, dysentery, influenza, and other infectious Coconut water is not only a tropical beverage but also a traditional medicine [1], P7 Volume 2, Issue 2, April-June 2014 Journal of Current Trends in Clinical Medicine & Laboratory Biochemistry a microbiological growth medium [2] and a one of the most … The use of pesticides appears essential to the productivity and preservation of coconut palms. Coconut water contains a unique combination of B vitamins, vitamin C, micronutrients, and phytohormones that are exceptionally beneficial to your health. In addition, coconut water does contain potassium. Risks Stand-alone determination of the carbon stable isotope ratios of the bulk sample and/or of its component sugars will provide almost certain proof of adulteration with exogenous sugars if ratios significantly above around –21‰ are found. (, Arunachalam V., Rajesh M.K. Hence although it is in our opinion more likely to be a risk of occurring in coconut milk, analysts should remain alert to the possibility and consider screening for milk protein, e.g., by ELISA (61). More advanced approaches have been proposed including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, NMR in combination with chemometrics or GC-MS. Purkayastha et al. Three alerts were for additives (sulfites or benzoic acid), one for inadequate thermal processing and three for milk protein allergens. Disclaimer: The views expressed herein are entirely those of the authors. C. nucifera is a monotypic member of the Arecaceae family. The genetics of the coconut have been extensively studied (see for example (54)). This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. Coconut water (CW) is a slightly sweet liquid with a subtle, nutty flavor obtained from the endosperm of coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.). Although not ideal, it has been used direct from the coconut in extremis as a short-term intravenous hydration fluid (3, 4). (, Sucupira N.R., Wurlitzer N.J., Dionisio A.P., de Abreul F.A.P., de Sousa P.H.M. It has fewer calories, less sodium, and more potassium than a sports drink. The CW is low in calories and fat. A scientific review published in the Molecules journal showed benefits ranging from lowering high blood pressure, preventing heart attacks, and healing cancer. The variations in volume and composition with variety and nut maturity have important influences on the trade in coconut water products. These advantages make it our top choice. nana) and Hybrid (a cross between Dwarf and Tall). Although it is tempting to suggest the lower data arise from a decimal point error equally divergent sodium data are seen elsewhere (15) (Na 15.5–1050 mg/kg) hence the most that can be said is that coconut water sodium ion concentrations are highly variable. The authors concluded that Raman spectroscopy has potential as a rapid accurate analytical method for the detection of adulteration in this product, with the ability to discern small abnormalities in sugar ratios within coconut water (45). (, Ferreira J.A., Ferreira J.M.S., Talamini V., de Fátima Facco J., Rizzetti T.M., Prestes O.D., Adaime M.B., Zanella R., Bottoli C.B.G. Although water from immature coconuts is regarded as the best for human consumption, large volumes of mature coconut water are available as a waste product from copra and coconut milk/cream production (5, 6, 17). The presence of free RNA in coconut water is known; to our knowledge PCR authenticity studies remain lacking, but may prove interesting. European sales of coconut water seem likely to increase from a low baseline. using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (32). The drupe envelope (mesocarp or husk), is extensively marketed after processing as rope, carpets, geotextiles and growing media (1). The predominant type is lauric acid (47%), with myristic and palmitic acids present in smaller amounts, which have been shown in research to raise harmful LDL levels. A variety of thermal and non-thermal processing methods have been explored (23, 24) in addition to the use of additives (such as L-ascorbic acid (25), potassium sorbate and sodium metabisulfite (26), citric acid, ascorbic acid, L-cysteine (27) and sodium sulfite (28)) to ensure products’ sterility and stability to enable long-term worldwide commercialization. This alone puts it well ahead of much of the competition, as you can be assured that it is free of pesticides and fertilizers. Table 1 collates data for sugars from a number of authors (1, 10, 14, 16), who collected data from 14 papers published mainly in the 20th century. A summary of these standards is in Table 3. Coconut oil proponents point to studies of indigenous populations in parts of India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Polynesia, whose diets include copious amounts of coconut. Although there were statistically significant differences between cultivars, the specific cultivars would not be known in detail by the ultimate consumers when purchasing retailed products. Coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) is an ancien t tropical beverage whose popularity on the international market has been continuously increasing in recent years. Indonesia has the world’s largest production, followed by the Philippines and India. English Edition. Turbidity, which tends to increase with maturity, may also serve as a visual screening mechanism (young coconut water should be visually clear) and pH data in the above studies may also assist. The standards summarized in Table 3 rely for the most part on classical analytical techniques. Although there is no apparent commercial incentive for the addition of cow’s milk as such or as skimmed milk powder, several RASFF notifications arose for milk proteins in coconut water. Over the years with a rise in lactose intolerance and veganism, coconuts have been enjoying quite the attention for being a healthy source of water, milk, cream, sugar, vinegar, and flour. It is known that nucleic acids are present in coconut water (55) at relatively low yields and not of cellular double stranded DNA but of microRNA hybrids (56, 57). (, Farquhar G.D., Ehleringer J.R., Hubick K.T. Stated 8–9 months (10), mean of three varieties, Dwarf, Tall and Hybrid, the standard deviations of the data were small. 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